HUMULUS LUPULUS AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION VIA SLOW PYROLYSIS
Humulus lupulus, a kind of hop plant agricultural waste was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor with a heating rate of 10⁰C min-1 in the presence of N2 atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature was investigated at 450, 500, 550 and 600ᴼC. The characterization of solid product (bio-char) and liquid product (bio-oil) was performed by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Column chromatography, GC-MS and FT-IR analyses were used for the characterization of bio-oil; whereas FT-IR and SEM were the techniques for bio-char characterization. Experimental results showed that liquid products are available to evaluate as valuable chemicals and environmentally friendly synthetic fuels whereas solid products can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatments.
A. Pattiya, J.O. Titiloye, A.V. Bridgwater, Evaluation of catalytic pyrolysis of cassava rhizome by principal component analysis, Fuel 89 (2010) 244-253.
S. Yaman, Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks, Energ. Convers. Manage., 45 (2004) 651-671.
D. Wang, R. Xiao, H. Zhang, G. He, Comparison of catalytic pyrolysis of biomass with MCM-41 and CaO catalysts by using TGA–FTIR analysis, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 89 (2010) 171-177.
A.V. Bridgwater, A.J. Toft, J.G. Brammer, A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 6 (2002) 181-248.
A.V. Bridgwater, G.V.C. Peacocke, Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 4 (2000) 1-73.
B.B. Uzun, E. Apaydın-Varol, F. Ateş, N. Özbay, A.E. Pütün, Synthetic fuel production from tea waste: Characterisation of bio-oil and bio-char, Fuel 89 (2010) 176-184.
E. Apaydin-Varol, E. Pütün, A.E. Pütün, Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell, Fuel 86 (2007) 1892-1899.
E. Pütün, F. Ateş, , A.E. Pütün, Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in inert and steam atmospheres, Fuel 87 (2008) 815-824.
İ. Demiral, A. Eryazıcı, S. Şensöz, Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of corncob (Zea mays L.), Biomass Bioenerg. 36 (2012) 43-49.
B.B. Uzun, N. Sarioğlu, Rapid and catalytic pyrolysis of corn stalks, Fuel Process. Technol., 90 (2009) 705-716.
S. Şensöz, D. Angın, Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed pres cake: Part 1. The effects of pyrolysis parameters on the product yields, Bioresour. Technol. 99 (2008) 5492-5497.
B.B. Uzun, A.E. Pütün, E. Pütün, Fast pyrolysis of soybean cake: Product yields and compositions, Bioresour. Technol. 97 (2006) 569-576.
J.L. Zheng, W.M. Yi, N.N. Wang, Bio-oil production from cotton stalk, Energ. Convers. Manage. 49 (2008) 1724-1730.
F. Ateş, E. Pütün, A.E. Pütün, Fast pyrolysis of sesame stalk: yields and structural analysis of bio-oil, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 71 (2004) 779-790.
A.E. Pütün, B.B. Uzun, E. Apaydin, E. Pütün, Bio-oil from olive oil industry wastes: Pyrolysis of olive residue under different conditions, Fuel Process. Technol. 87 (2005) 25-32.
W.T. Tsai, M.K. Lee, Y.M. Chang, Fast pyrolysis of rice husk: Product yields and compositions, Bioresour. Technol. 98 (2007) 22-28.
A.E. Pütün, E. Önal, B.B. Uzun, N. Özbay, Comparison between the “slow” and “fast” pyrolysis of tobacco residue, Ind. Crop. Prod. 26 (2007) 307-314.
M. Carrier, T. Hugo, J. Gorgens, H. Knoetze, Comparison of slow and vacuum pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 90 (2011) 18-26.
B. Aydinli, A. Caglar, The investigation of the effects of two different polymers and three catalysts on pyrolysis of hazelnut shell, Fuel Process. Technol. 93 (2012) 1-7.
İ. Demiral, E.A. Ayan, Pyrolysis of grape bagasse: Effect of pyrolysis conditions on the product yields and characterization of the liquid product, Bioresource Technol. 102 (2011) 3946-3951.
Z. Başkaya, The Geographical Foundations of Hops Production in Bilecik, Eas. Geogr. Rev. 25 (16) (2011) 209-230.
J. Gardea-Torresday, M. Hejazi, K. Tiemann, J.G. Parsons, M. Duarte-Gardea, J. Henning, Use of hop (Humulus lupulus) agricultural by-products for the reduction of aqueous lead(II) environmental health hazards, J. Hazard. Mater. 91 (2002) 95–112.
Probstein R.F., Hicks R.E., Synthetic fuels, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1982.
Y. Haiping, Y. Rong, C. Hanping, L. Dong Ho, Z. Chuguang, Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis, Fuel 86 (2007) 1781–1788.
Pütün, A.E., Özbay, N., Önal, E.P., Pütün E., Fixed-bed pyrolysis of cotton stalk for liquid and solid products, Fuel Process. Technol., 86 (2005) 1207-1219.