EGF Impact on Glycosaminoglycan Levels of the Brain
Various growth factors such as EBF are effective proteins in wound healing. GAGs can support the healing of wound by the growth factors as well as they are effective in recovery. Because of this reason, the changes occurring in GAG and protein levels synthesized from the hepatic tissue due to EGF applied systemically during physiologic wound healing process.48 Wistar-Albino male rats were used in experiments. Rats to which dorsolateral excisional wound was made were divided into 2 equal groups: 1-The group left to spontaneous recovery, 2-Systemic EGF applied group. A daily dose of EGF (10 ng/ml) was given to the animals in the application group. Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia in 1st, 5th, 7th and 14th days of the study. GAG and protein concentrations in brain tissues were measured spectrophometrically.The results were compared by Mann Whitney U test.It was determined that the GAG level in brain was not effective in normal recovery process in peripheral injuries and systemically applied EGF increased GAG synthesis especially in the 7th day and it contributed to the healing by increasing the protein synthesis in the 7th day in which tissue repair is the highest.
Steed, D.L., ‘‘Modifiying the wound healing response with exogenous growth factors’’, Clin. Plast. Surg., 25: 397-405 (1998).
Nave, K.A., Prrobstmeier, R. and Schachner, M., ‘‘Epidermal growth factor does not cross the blood- brain barrier’’, J. Invest. Dermatol., 94(5): 624-662, (1985).
Pratt, R.M., ‘‘Role of epidermal growth factor in embryonic development’’, Curr. Top. Dev. Biol., 22(8): 175-193, (1987).
Laato, M., Niinikoshi, J., Gerdin, B. and Lebel, L., ‘‘Stimulation of wound healing by epidermal grown factor’’, Ann. Surg. J., 203(14): 379-381, (1986).
Champe, P.C. and Harvey, R.A., Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry 2 nd ed, New Jersey, 147-157, (1994).
Murray, R.K., Mayes, P.A., Granner, D.K. and Rodwell, V.W., Harper’s Biochemistry, Appleton- Lange, 758-763, (1990).
Yenil, N., Kuzu, S., Ay, K., Ay, E., ‘‘Monosakkarit birimlerinin O-glikozidik bağlanması; O-disakkarit oluşumları’’, C.B.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(1): 59- 74, (2009).
Tiwari, V., Tarbutton, MS., Shukla, D., ‘’Diversity of Heparan Sulfate and HSV Entry:
Basic Understanding and Treatment Strategies‘’, Molecules, 20(2): 2707-2727, (2015).
Devlin, T.M., Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 3 rd ed., Wiley-Liss, New York, 378- 383, (1992).  Tuna,
glikozaminoglikan’ın santral sinir sistemindeki neovaskülarizasyona etkileri’’, Uzmanlık Tezi, Çukurova Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Nöroşirurji A.B.D., Adana, (1996). interlökin-1
ve Suarez, E.R., Nohara, A.S., Mataveli, F.D., Matos, H.B. L.L.,
‘‘Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and shedding induced by growth factors are cell and compound spesific’’, FMABC Growth factors, 25(1): 50-59, (2007). and Pinhal,
M.A.,  Stashak, T.S., Principles of Wound Healing. In: Equine Wound Management 1 st ed., Lea & Febiger, Malvern, Pennsylvania, 1-15, (1991).
Lowry, O. H., ‘‘Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent’’, J. Biol. Chem., 183: 265-275, (1951).
Whiteman, P., ‘‘The quantitative determination of GAG in urine with alcine blue 86x’’, Biochem. J., 131: 351-357, (1973).
Yeo, T.K., Brown, L. and Dvorak, H.F., ‘‘Alterations in proteoglycan synthesis common to healing wounds and tumors.’’, Am. J. Pathol., 138(6): 1437-50, (1991).
Savage, K. and Swann, D.A., ‘‘A comparison of glycosaminoglycan
fibroblasts from normal skin, normal scar and hypertrophic scar’’, J. Invest. Dermatol., 84(6): 521-6, (1985). by
human  Olczyk, P., Komosinska-Vassev, K., Winsz- Szczotka, K., Kuznik-Trocha, K. and Olczyk, K., ‘‘Hyaluronan: structure, metabolism, functions and role in wound healing’’, Postepy. Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online), 2(62): 651-659, (2008).
Kosir, M.A., Quinn, C.C., Wang, W. and Tromp, G., ‘‘Matrix glycosaminoglycans in the growth phase of fibroblasts: more of the story in wound healing’’, J. Surg. Res., 92(1): 45-52, (2000).
Karasu, A. and Bakır, B., ‘‘Wound and wound healing’’, YYÜ Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi, 14(1): 36-43, (2008).
Hedlund, C.S., Surgey of the Integumentary System, Small Animal Surgery, 2 nd ed., Fossum, T.W. (Ed.), Mosby, China, 134-137, (2002).
Heinze, C.D. and Clem, M.F., Wound healing and tissue repair. In: Textbook of Large Animal Surgery 2 nd ed., Oehme, F.W. (Ed.), Williams & Wilkins USA, 141-153, (1988).
Regan, M.C., Barbul, A., The Cellular Biology of Wound Healing: Wound Healing, Schlag, G., Redl, H. (Eds.), Germany, 1: 3-17, (1994).
Broughton II, G., Janis, J.E., Attinger, C.E., ‘‘Wound healing : an overview’’, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 117 (Suppl.): 1 eS- 32eS.5, (2006).
Savage, K., Siebert, E. and Swann, D., ‘‘The effect of platelet-derived growth factor on cell division and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by human skin and scar fibroblasts’’, J. Invest. Dermatol., 89(1): 93-99, (1987).
Fan, S.Q., Qin, L.Y., Cai, J.L., Zhu, G.Y., Bin, X. and Yan, H.S., ‘‘Effect of heparin on production of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1 by human normal skin and hyperplastic scar fibroblasts’’, J. Burn. Care Res., 28(5): 734-41, (2007).
Webber, J., Jenkins, R.H., Meran, S., Philips, A. and Steadman, R., ‘‘Modulation of TGF beta1- dependent
hyaluronan’’, Am. J. Panthol., 175(1): 148-60, (2009). differentiation
by Coşkun, S., Güleç, E.G., Balabanli B. and Acartürk F., “Effects of epidermal growth factor on lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels in oral mucosal ulcer healing: a time-course study.” Surg. Today., 37(7): 570-4, (2007).
Çağlıkülekçi, M., Özçay, B., Oruğ, T., Aydoğ, G., Renda, N. and Atalay, N., ‘‘The effect of recombinant
anastomotic wound healing in rats with obstructive jaundice’’, Turk. J. Gastroenterol., 13(1) 1: 7-23, (2002). on intestinal