Development of High-Density Polyethylene /Orange Peels Particulate Bio-Composite
Renewable resources such as natural fillers in the field of particles reinforced materials with their new range of applications represent an important basis in order to fulfill the ecological objective of creating environmental friendly materials. In views of enormous advantages a study on composites using orange peels particles as a reinforcing material and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a novel matrix has been made. The composite was first compounded to produce homogeneity of the particles in the matrix, and then it was compacted into flat plates. The composites were produced by varying the orange peels particles (uncarbonized and carbonized) from 5-25wt%. The properties of HDPE reinforced with orange peels have been studied using mechanical tests and microstructural analysis. The results shown that there was a fairly uniform distribution of the orange peels particles in the microstructure of HDPE composites which is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The obtained results of the developed composites have shown that the orange peels waste could be used as a biodegradable eco-friendly reinforcement.Keywords : Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), Mechanical properties, Microstructure and Compression moulding
Bledzki, A. K. and J. Gassan (1999). "Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibers." Progress in Polymer Science 24(2): 221-274.
Hull, D. and Clyne, T.W. (1996). “An introduction to composite materials” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp 100-107
Anon. (1999). Durafibre Inc. of Cargill Limited Processors of flax Showcase.http://www.agrotechfiber.com/showcase/durafi bre.htm.pp 10-15. Fiber Technology
Mishra S. C., Nadiya Bihari Nayak and Alok Satapathy (1999) “Investigation on Bio-waste Reinforced Epoxy Composites”, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Rourkela, India. Pp 119-123. Institute of Technology,
Jeffrey W. Kock, (2000) .“Physical and Mechanical Properties of Chicken Feather Materials” a thesis presented to the academic faculty Georgia Institute of Technology.
White NM, Ansell MP(1993). Straw reinforced polyester composites. J Mater Sci ;18:1549–56.
Wasylciw, W. (1999). The utilization of industrial hemp stalks in composite panels. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Eastern Canadian Section of the Forest Products Society., Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Van de Velde K and Kiekens P(2002): Thermal degradation of flax: The determination of kinetic parameters with thermogravimetric analysis, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 83 (12), 2634-2643
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 2000. ASTM D 638-99-2000 and 790-99-2000. ASTM Committee on Standards.
Casaurang M, Herrera P, Gonzalez I and Aguilar V. M(1991), “Physical and mechanical properties of henequen fibers”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 43, 749-756.
Suddel BC, Evans W.J(2005) Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites. In: Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT, editors. New York: Taylor & Francis; p. 231–59.
Satyanarayana K. G, Sukumaran K, Kulkarni A. G, Pillai S. G. K, and Rohatgi P. K(1986) “Fabrication and Properties of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Composites”, Journal of Composites, 17(4), 329-333.
Shangjin H., S. Keyu, B. Jie, Z. Zengkun, L. Liang, D. Zongjie and Z. Baolong(2001), “Studies on the Properties of Epoxy Resins Modified with Chain-Extended Ureas” , Journal of Polymer, 42, 9641–9647.
Pothan L. A, Thomas S and Neelakantan(1997) “Short Banana Mechanical, Failure and Aging Characteristics”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 16(8), pp. 744- 765. Polyester Composites:
Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT(2002) Sustainable bio- composites from renewable resources: opportunity and challenges in the green materials world. J Polym Environ ;10:19–26